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Title: Planning for people? An evaluation of objectives for managing visitors at wildlife refuges in the United States

Author: Brooks, Jeffrey J.; Massengale, Robert;

Date: 2011

Source: In: Watson, Alan; Murrieta-Saldivar, Joaquin; McBride, Brooke, comps. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Ninth World Wilderness Congress symposium; November 6-13, 2009; Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Proceedings RMRS-P-64. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 200-208.

Publication Series: Proceedings (P)

   Note: This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document

Description: This study evaluates the quality of planning objectives for visitor services as written in Comprehensive Conservation Plans for the National Wildlife Refuge System of the United States. Planners in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service are predominantly writing public use objectives that address wildlife recreation and education. Results indicate that planners are writing visitor services objectives that are achievable and results oriented. Overall quality of objectives has improved since the Refuge Improvement Act of 1997. The highest quality objectives identified target audiences, accounted for monitoring, and were accompanied by detailed rationales and literature citations. More work is needed to write objectives that are specific, measurable, time limited, and credible. Implications for refuge planning are discussed, including changes in monitoring strategies and expertise as the focus of visitor services planning potentially shifts from providing opportunities to enabling the experiential outcomes that are desired for refuge visitors.

Keywords: wilderness, biodiversity, conservation, protected areas, economics, subsistence, tourism, traditional knowledge, community involvement, policy, stewardship, education, spiritual values, National Wildlife Refuge System

Publication Notes:

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  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
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Brooks, Jeffrey J.; Massengale, Robert. 2011. Planning for people? An evaluation of objectives for managing visitors at wildlife refuges in the United States. In: Watson, Alan; Murrieta-Saldivar, Joaquin; McBride, Brooke, comps. Science and stewardship to protect and sustain wilderness values: Ninth World Wilderness Congress symposium; November 6-13, 2009; Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Proceedings RMRS-P-64. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 200-208.

 


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