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Title: Ecology and management of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.)

Author: Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene;

Date: 2006

Source: Invasive Species Technical Note No. MT-3. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 9 p.

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: Dalmatian toadflax is a short-lived perennial herb native to the Mediterranean coastal regions of Europe and western Asia. Its name is derived from the Dalmatian Coast of the Adriatic Sea located within its native range. This species has escaped cultivation as an ornamental, a source of fabric dye, and as a medicinal plant to become an invasive weed. Dalmatian toadflax has been reported in all but nine Montana counties, with particularly heavy infestations in Broadwater, Jefferson, Lewis and Clark, and Bighorn Counties (see Figure 1). A distribution increase graph from the Invaders Database ( suggests that Dalmatian toadflax is currently in the exponential population growth phase of invasion in Montana, making it a considerable threat to resource conservation in this state. Dalmatian toadflax is adapted to a wide range of habitats but it is most problematic in dry, open grassland and forest sites, along roadsides, and on disturbed sites with coarse, well-draining soils. Grass production can be 2.5 times lower in dense infestations than similar areas without Dalmatian toadflax.

Keywords: Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica

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Jacobs, Jim; Sing, Sharlene. 2006. Ecology and management of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica (L.) Mill.). Invasive Species Technical Note No. MT-3. Bozeman, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 9 p.


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