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Publication Information

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Title: Linking social and ecological systems

Author: Zipperer, Wayne; Morse, Wayde; Gaither, Cassandra;

Date: 2011

Source: In: Niemela, Jari, ed. Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.298-308.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: On 16 November 2005 a water sample was taken from an urban stream in a metropolitan area in the southern United States and tested for the presence of E. coli. Although water samples from this and other streams in the metropolitan area frequently registered over 15,000 colonies/100 ml, this particular sample is unique in that it registered a reading of 70,000 colonies/100 ml, 350 per cent greater than the 200 colonies/100 ml—the Environment Protection Agency’s standard for streams. The fetid floodwaters in New Orleans from Hurricane Katrina, which had a contamination level of 10,000 colonies/100 ml and attracted considerable public attention, were cleaner than this stream at the time of sampling.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

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Zipperer, Wayne C.; Morse, Wayde C.; Johnson Gaither, Cassandra. 2011. Linking social and ecological systems. In: Niemela, Jari, ed. Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p.298-308.

 


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