Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (385 KB)

Title: Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects

Author: Zipperer, Wayne C.; Pickett, Steward T.A.;

Date: 2012

Source: In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. 1-8.

Publication Series: Miscellaneous

Description: Currently, over 50% of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2050, this estimate is expected to be 70%. This urban growth, however, is not uniformly distributed around the world. The majority of it will occur in developing nations and create megacities whose populations exceed at least 10 million people. Not all urban areas, however, are growing. Some are actually losing populations because of changing economic conditions and population demographics. Whether a city is growing or losing population, governances face unique challenges with respect to infrastructural, water and transportation needs. To meet these challenges, agencies within city government are cooperating by pooling resources and removing conflicting policies, partnering with the private sector to offset costs of infrastructure, and taking new approaches to design infrastructure. By linking ecological theory with urban design, a more integrative approach to create liveable spaces, which are sustainable, can be achieved in rapidly expanding and shrinking urban areas.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • You may send email to to request a hard copy of this publication. (Please specify exactly which publication you are requesting and your mailing address.)



Zipperer, Wayne C.; Pickett, Steward T.A. 2012. Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. 1-8.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.