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Title: The history and future of methyl bromide alternatives in the southern United States

Author: Starkey, Tom E.;

Date: 2012

Source: In: Haase, D. L.; Pinto, J. R.; Riley, L. E., tech. coords. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2011. Proc. RMRS-P-68. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 31-35.

Publication Series: Proceedings (P)

   Note: This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document

Description: This article gives a brief history of the efforts of the Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative (SFNMC) in testing methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives for soil fumigation. In the southeastern United States, fumigation with MBr has been the most commonly used method for producing high quality, pest-free forest seedlings in an environment that is conducive for soil-borne pathogens, nematodes, and weeds. As a result of the Montreal Protocol, the production and use of MBr was to be incrementally phased out beginning in 2005. Included in this process are exemptions allowing for continued use and testing of fumigants with the goal of finding an alternative that is economically feasible and efficacious. Testing by the SFNMC has shown that, although there are alternatives to MBr, they are not as efficacious. Any choice of currently available alternatives will most likely require an increase in pesticide use to compensate for alternative short-falls. The effects of all alternatives following 4 to 5 crop rotations without MBr are unknown. Currently, recommended alternatives vary in their effectiveness from one nursery to another. The most significant development in soil fumigant research in the last 5 years has been the availability of high barrier plastics that will allow lower fumigant rates to be used. The most efficacious alternative for forest seedling nurseries in the southern United States is one that contains a significant percentage of chloropicrin as its active ingredient.

Keywords: soil fumigation, chloropicrin, loblolly pine, high barrier plastics, broadcast fumigation

Publication Notes:

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  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
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Citation:


Starkey, Tom E. 2012. The history and future of methyl bromide alternatives in the southern United States. In: Haase, D. L.; Pinto, J. R.; Riley, L. E., tech. coords. National Proceedings: Forest and Conservation Nursery Associations - 2011. Proc. RMRS-P-68. Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. p. 31-35.

 


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