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Title: Mangrove forests: a tough system to invade
Author: Lugo, Ariel E.;
Source: In: Britton, Kerry O., ed. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings; 1997 April 8-10; Nashville, TN. U.S. Forest Service and Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council: 195-198.
Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
Description: Tropical forests are the most species-rich forests in the world. As many as 225 tree species per hectare have been reported in these ecosystems, values that are equivalent to almost finding a different tree species every other tree encountered in the forest. Under some conditions, tree species richness decreases in tropical forests. For example, Hart et al. (1989) reported that forests in Africa that were dominated by a single species had on average 18 tree species per 0.5 ha. Fewer species still are normally found in freshwater forested wetlands. Values in these systems range from 1 to 23 species per hectare, with averages at 8.3 and 6 species per hectare for riverine and basin freshwater wetlands, respectively. Mangrove forests are even more species-poor, and, in fact, are among the most species-poor forest ecosystems in the tropics. Mangrove stands can be found where the plant species list is only one tree species.
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Lugo, Ariel E. 1998. Mangrove forests: a tough system to invade. In: Britton, Kerry O., ed. Exotic pests of eastern forests conference proceedings; 1997 April 8-10; Nashville, TN. U.S. Forest Service and Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council: 195-198.
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