Title: Beyond ramorum - the other Phytophthoras in western forests
Author: Hansen, Everett;
Source: In: Frankel, S.J.; Kliejunas, J.T.; Palmieri, K.M.; Alexander, J.M. tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death fifth science symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-243. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 41-42
Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)
Little is known about indigenous Phytophthora species in natural ecosystems, although increasing evidence suggests that a diverse, trophically complex, Phytophthora community is important in many forests. In Oregon, 32+ Phytophthora species have been identified from forests. Globally, the number of described species has steadily increased, with a dramatic spike in recent years as new species have been split from old and other species have been discovered through exploration of new forest habitats triggered by the P. ramorum epidemics. In Oregon, almost two-thirds of the species were recently described. Forest soil, streams, and the upper canopies of trees are now being explored for Phytophthora diversity, and a new appreciation for the ecological amplitude of the genus is emerging. Three ecological assemblages, or guilds, of Phytophthora species can be distinguished in this accumulated work (fig. 1). Around the world, 10 to 15 species are regularly identified in surveys of temperate forest soils. Taxa in ITS clade 6 are especially numerous in forest streams and may be saprophytic in this habitat. In the upper canopies of trees in western tanoak forests, three or four Phytophthora species (including P. ramorum) with similar pathogenic behavior are encountered. Species from all three habitats—soil, streams, and upper canopies—occasionally cause lethal bole cankers on trees. A very few become invasive under circumstances we cannot yet predict.
Preventing the next invasion by a Phytophthora species is as much a political and economic challenge as a biological one. We have learned much through the P. ramorum experience about the importance (danger) of the nursery trade as a pathway for invasion, and in the United States, the nursery industry has responded to reduce the threat. Recent emphasis on Best Management Practices and Oregon's "Grower Assisted Inspection Program" assure that nursery stock in interstate commerce is healthier and less likely to harbor pathogens. Success with the larger horticultural nurseries shifts the focus, however, to gaps in protective education programs. Smaller native plant nurseries supplying stock for wildland rehabilitation, and the agency botanists that buy from them, would both benefit from focused plant health training.
Keywords: Sudden oak death, Phytophthora ramorum, invasive species, tanoak, Notholithocarpus densiflorus, coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi
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Hansen, Everett. 2013. Beyond ramorum - the other Phytophthoras in western forests. In: Frankel, S.J.; Kliejunas, J.T.; Palmieri, K.M.; Alexander, J.M. tech. coords. Proceedings of the sudden oak death fifth science symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-243. Albany, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 41-42.
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