Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (1.7 MB)

Title: Chemical constituents in clouds and rainwater in the Puerto Rican rainforest: potential sources and seasonal drivers

Author: Gioda, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Scatena, F. N.; Weathers, K. C.; Mateus, V. L.; McDowell, W. H.;

Date: 2013

Source: Atmospheric Environment 68:208-220

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Cloud- and rain-water samples collected between 1984 and 2007 in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, were analyzed in order to understand the main processes and sources that control their chemistry. Three sites were used: El Verde Field Station (380 m asl), Bisley (361 m asl), and East Peak (1051 m asl). Bulk rainwater samples were collected from all sites, and cloud water was also collected on East Peak. All samples were analyzed for pH, conductivity, and concentrations of Cl-, SO2/4-, NO3-, NH4+ Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Similar patterns in overall chemistry were observed for both cloud- and rainwater samples. The majority of samples had low acidity (average pH of 4.4e5.0), similar to other remote sites. Sea salt (Na+ and Cl-) had a large influence on rain and cloud chemistry and accounted for approximately 70% of the total mass of solutes, followed by SO4-, which controls the acidity of the clouds and rainwater. Calcium accounted for 6e8% of the total cations and dominated neutralization processes. The highest concentrations of Ca2+ and NO3- in both cloud- and rain-water were observed in the summertime when large amounts of dust from the African continent reached the sites. Enrichment Factor and Principal Component Analyses showed that Na+, Cl-, and Mg2+ in the cloud- and rain-water were primarily of marine origin, while most of the Ca2+ was from crustal sources; and NO3- was predominantly anthropogenic, presumably from both local and long-range sources. In general, the results of this study suggested that cloud- and rain-water chemistry in northeastern Puerto Rico is strongly influenced by natural and marine sources rather than local anthropogenic sources. The pollutant species in the samples were mainly derived from long distance transport.

Keywords: Precipitation chemistry, Long-range transport, Saharan dust, Background marine, El Yunque National Forest, Pico del Este

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Gioda, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O.L.; Scatena, F. N.; Weathers, K. C.; Mateus, V. L.; McDowell, W. H. 2013. Chemical constituents in clouds and rainwater in the Puerto Rican rainforest: potential sources and seasonal drivers. Atmospheric Environment 68:208-220.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.