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Publication Information

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Title: Cause, effect, and observational studies

Author: Block, Bill;

Date: 2013

Source: Journal of Wildlife Management. 77(1): 1.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: A critical niche of the Journal of Wildlife Management is to publish research that will help guide wildlife conservation. Hence, nearly every paper concludes with a Management Implications section which is the "so what'" part of the paper. In other words, how does the science reported in the paper contribute to the management and conservation of the species or system studied? The "so what" aspect of the paper often comes down to documenting that a certain action or activity will have some effect on a species' population or habitat. If the paper cannot show an effect, it may not be suitable in the Journal and may be more appropriate for another outlet.

Keywords: Journal of Wildlife Management, research, wildlife conservation

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Block, Bill. 2013. Cause, effect, and observational studies. Journal of Wildlife Management. 77(1): 1.


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