Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (413 KB)

Title: Ambered kernels in stenospermocarpic fruit of eastern black walnut

Author: Warmund, Michele R.; Van Sambeek, J.W.;

Date: 2014

Source: HortScience. 49(9):1142-1147.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: "Ambers" is a term used to describe poorly filled, shriveled eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) kernels with a dark brown or black-colored pellicle that are unmarketable. Studies were conducted to determine the incidence of ambered black walnut kernels and to ascertain when symptoms were apparent in specific tissues. The occurrence of ambered kernels was evaluated in fruit harvested from mature 'Football' trees growing at three sites within a commercial black walnut orchard in 2008 to 2010. Mature walnut fruit sampled from trees at Site 2 had greater odds for ambered kernels than those on trees at two other sites within the same orchard with 27% of the walnuts sampled exhibiting symptoms when examined in October. Also, black walnut fruit in 2010 had more ambered kernels than those examined in Oct. 2008 or 2009. Cropload, soil type, ambient temperatures, or precipitation was not apparently associated with a high incidence of ambered kernels. When black walnut fruit from trees at Site 2 were examined from 25 June to 6 Oct. 2011, embryos were visible in 50% of the fruit without discoloration on the first date. Stenospermocarpy (e.g., aborted or rudimentary embryos after fertilization) was observed in fruit with discolored or ambered kernels as early as 7 July. Stenospermocarpic fruit with ambered kernels had shorter embryo axis lengths (root apex to shoot apex) than fruit with non-ambered kernels on 7 July and at successive sampling dates. Cotyledon widths of ambered kernels in stenospermocarpic fruit were narrower than those of non-ambered kernels on 21 July, but symptomatic cotyledons continued to enlarge until 15 Sept. All fruit enlarged during the growing season and nut diameters varied by only 3.4 mm at harvest. Thus, visible embryo degeneration, which was associated with ambered kernels in black walnut fruit, was detected in early July when shell hardening occurs and kernel tissues are enlarging.

Keywords: cotyledon, embryo abortion, Juglans nigra, nut size, pellicle

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.
  • This publication may be available in hard copy. Check the Northern Research Station web site to request a printed copy of this publication.
  • Our on-line publications are scanned and captured using Adobe Acrobat. During the capture process some typographical errors may occur. Please contact Sharon Hobrla, shobrla@fs.fed.us if you notice any errors which make this publication unusable.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Warmund, Michele R.; Van Sambeek, J.W. 2014. Ambered kernels in stenospermocarpic fruit of eastern black walnut. HortScience. 49(9):1142-1147.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.