Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (6.3 MB)

Related Research Highlights

Picture of Restoring Forest Landscapes
SRS-2014-134
Restoring Forest Landscapes

Title: Contemporary forest restoration: A review emphasizing function

Author: Stanturf, John A.; Palik, Brian J.; Dumroese, R. Kasten;

Date: 2014

Source: Forest Ecology and Management. 331: 292-323.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: The forest restoration challenge (globally 2 billion ha) and the prospect of changing climate with increasing frequency of extreme events argues for approaching restoration from a functional and landscape perspective. Because the practice of restoration utilizes many techniques common to silviculture, no clear line separates ordinary forestry practices from restoration. The distinction may be that extra-ordinary activities are required in the face of degraded, damaged, or destroyed ecosystems. Restoration is driven by the desire to increase sustainability of ecosystems and their services and restoration is likely to have multiple goals arising from the motivations of those involved. The process of setting restoration objectives translates vague goals into feasible, measurable targets and ultimately actions on the ground. Our objective for this review is to synthesize the science underpinning contemporary approaches to forest restoration practice. We focus on methods and present them within a coherent terminology of four restoration strategies: rehabilitation, reconstruction, reclamation, and replacement. While not a consensus terminology, these terms have a logical foundation. Rehabilitation restores desired species composition, structure, or processes to a degraded ecosystem. Reconstruction restores native plant communities on land recently in other resource uses, such as agriculture. Reclamation restores severely degraded land generally devoid of vegetation, often the result of resource extraction, such as mining. Replacement of species (or their locally-adapted genotypes) with new species (or new genotypes) is a response to climate change. Restoration methods are presented as available tools; because adding vegetation is an effective restoration technique, the discussion of methods begins with a description of available plant materials. We then discuss altering composition under different initial overstory conditions, including deployment methods depending upon whether or not an overstory is present, how much of the landscape will be restored, and the complexity of the planting design. We present some major approaches for altering structure in degraded forest stands, and describe approaches for restoration of two key ecosystem processes, fire and flooding. Although we consider stand-level designs, what we describe is mostly scalable to the landscape-level. No restoration project is undertaken in a social vacuum; even standlevel restoration occurs within a system of governance that regulates relationships among key agents. Gathering information and understanding the social dimensions of a restoration project is as necessary as understanding the biophysical dimensions. Social considerations can trump biophysical factors.

Keywords: Reconstruction, Rehabilitation, Reclamation, Replacement, Ecological restoration, Forest landscape restoration

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Stanturf, John A.; Palik, Brian J.; Dumroese, R. Kasten. 2014. Contemporary forest restoration: A review emphasizing function. Forest Ecology and Management. 331: 292-323.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.