Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (0 bytes)

Title: Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners

Author: Peng, Shane X.; Moon, Robert J.; Youngblood, Jeffrey P.;

Date: 2014

Source: Green Materials

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable, sustainable, and abundant nanomaterial widely used as reinforcing fillers in the field of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, two-part epoxy systems with CNC-enhanced hardeners were fabricated. Three types of hardeners, Jeffamine D400 (JD400), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and (±)-trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane (DACH), were evaluated for their compatibility with CNC. The roles of CNC additions and hardener types in epoxy properties were analyzed with tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. The CNC-reinforcing effects on epoxy depended on the structure of hardeners. For example, with less than 2 wt% CNC, Young’s modulus was increased by 16% in JD400-cured epoxy and by 19% in DETA-cured epoxy, but had minimal effect for the DACHcured epoxy. In general, the DETA-cured specimens had the highest increases in mechanical properties among the three hardeners evaluated. These results indicate that CNC additions to pre-formulated hardeners could be an alternative approach for dispersing CNCs within epoxy matrices and for improving the mechanical properties of epoxy. However, residual acetone and water during the curing reaction plasticized the epoxy matrices and must be limited for further property improvements.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, epoxy/hardeners, mechanical properties, nanocomposite

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Peng, Shane X.; Moon, Robert J.; Youngblood, Jeffrey P. 2014. Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners. Green Materials. 2(4): 193-205.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.