Title: Bolt, log, and tree grades for birch
Author: Carpenter, Roswell D.;
Source: In: Doolittle, W.T.; Bruns, P.E., comps. Birch symposium proceedings; 1969 August 19-21; Durham, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 26-32.
Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
Description: A birch tree is made up of a variety of round pieces of wood that can be used to manufacture many different products. To convert the tree into its best end use, it is first necessary to classify the usable round pieces into major product classes. These product classes will vary from low-quality wood suitable only for pulpwood or charcoal to high-quality wood for making fancy veneer (fig. 1). After the major product classification is made, a grading system is used to determine the relative value of the log, bolt, or tree for that product.
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Carpenter, Roswell D. 1969. Bolt, log, and tree grades for birch. In: Doolittle, W.T.; Bruns, P.E., comps. Birch symposium proceedings; 1969 August 19-21; Durham, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 26-32.
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