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Title: Diseases of birch
Author: Shigo, Alex L.;
Source: In: Doolittle, W.T.; Bruns, P.E., comps. 1969. Birch symposium proceedings; 1969 August 19-21; Durham, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 147-150.
Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
Description: Paper birch and yellow birch are not attacked by pathogens that cause widespread killing. Most of their diseases are associated with accidents and negligence. The major problems are discoloration and decay associated with wounds on low-vigor trees. Many of these problems could be alleviated through better management. And better management depends on better understanding of the problem. The purpose of this paper is to outline briefly the major diseases of birch.
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Shigo, Alex L. 1969. Diseases of birch. In: Doolittle, W.T.; Bruns, P.E., comps. 1969. Birch symposium proceedings; 1969 August 19-21; Durham, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 147-150.
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