Title: Animal damage to birch
Author: Jordan, James S.; Rushmore, Francis M.;
Source: In: Doolittle, W.T.; Bruns, P.E., comps. 1969. Birch symposium proceedings; 1969 August 19-21; Durham, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 155-163.
Publication Series: Paper (invited, offered, keynote)
Description: A relatively few animal species are responsible for most of the reported damage to the birches. White-tailed deer, yellow-bellied sapsuckers, porcupines, moose, and hares are the major animals involved. We will review reports of damage, discuss the underlying causes, and describe possible methods of control. For example, heavy deer browsing that eliminates birch regeneration can be especially damaging, regardless of how well birch is managed. Here the immediate action may well be direct control of the deer population; but the basic long-term need is for action through a better understanding of deer and plant ecology.
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Jordan, James S.; Rushmore, Francis M. 1969. Animal damage to birch. In: Doolittle, W.T.; Bruns, P.E., comps. 1969. Birch symposium proceedings; 1969 August 19-21; Durham, NH. Upper Darby, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station: 155-163.
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