Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (6.9 MB)

Title: Grafting of Bacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) onto Cellulose via In Situ Reactive Extrusion with Dicumyl Peroxide

Author: Wei, Liqing; McDonald, Armando G.; Stark, Nicole M.;

Date: 2015

Source: Biomacromolecules

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was grafted onto cellulose fiber by dicumyl peroxide (DCP) radical initiation via in situ reactive extrusion. The yield of the grafted (cellulose-g-PHB) copolymer was recorded and grafting efficiency was found to be dependent on the reaction time and DCP concentration. The grafting mechanism was investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis and showed the presence of radicals produced by DCP radical initiation. The grafted copolymer structure was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the cellulose-g-PHB copolymer formed a continuous phase between the surfaces of cellulose and PHB as compared to cellulose-PHB blends. The relative crystallinity of cellulose and PHB were quantified from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, while the absolute degree of crystallinity was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The reduction of crystallinity indicated the grafting reaction occurred not just in the amorphous region but also slightly in crystalline regions of both cellulose and PHB. The smaller crystal sizes suggested the brittleness of PHB was decreased. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the grafted copolymer was stabilized relative to PHB. By varying the reaction parameters the compositions (%PHB and %cellulose) of resultant cellulose-g-PHB copolymer are expected to be manipulated to obtain tunable properties.

Keywords: PHB, cellulose, reactive extrusion, grafting, thermal properties, NMR, FTIR

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Wei, Liqing; McDonald, Armando G.; Stark, Nicole M. 2015. Grafting of Bacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) onto Cellulose via In Situ Reactive Extrusion with Dicumyl Peroxide. Biomacromolecules. 16(3): 1040-1049.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.