Title: Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest
Author: Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G.;
Source: Tree Physiology. 35: 148-159.
Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)
Description: As tropical forests respond to environmental change, autotrophic respiration may consume a greater proportion of carbon fixed in photosynthesis at the expense of growth, potentially turning the forests into a carbon source. Predicting such a response requires that we measure and place autotrophic respiration in a complete carbon budget, but extrapolating measurements of autotrophic respiration from chambers to ecosystem remains a challenge. High plant species diversity and complex canopy structure may cause respiration rates to vary and measurements that do not account for this complexity may introduce bias in extrapolation more detrimental than uncertainty. Using experimental plantations of four native tree species with two canopy layers, we examined whether species and canopy layers vary in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux and whether the variation relates to commonly used scalars of mass, nitrogen (N), photosynthetic capacity and wood size. Foliar respiration rate varied threefold between canopy layers, ∼0.74 μmol m-2 s-1 in the overstory and ∼0.25 μmol m-2 s-1 in the understory, but little among species. Leaf mass per area, N and photosynthetic capacity explained some of the variation, but height explained more. Chamber measurements of foliar respiration thus can be extrapolated to the canopy with rates and leaf area specific to each canopy layer or height class. If area-based rates are sampled across canopy layers, the area-based rate may be regressed against leaf mass per area to derive the slope (per mass rate) to extrapolate to the canopy using the total leaf mass. Wood CO2 efflux varied 1.0–1.6 μmol m-2 s-1 for overstory trees and 0.6-0.9 μmol m-2 s-1 for understory species. The variation in wood CO2 efflux rate was mostly related to wood size, and little to species, canopy layer or height. Mean wood CO2 efflux rate per surface area, derived by regressing CO2 efflux per mass against the ratio of surface area to mass, can be extrapolated to the stand using total wood surface area. The temperature response of foliar respiration was similar for three of the four species, and wood CO2 efflux was similar between wet and dry seasons. For these species and this forest, vertical sampling may yield more accurate estimates than would temporal sampling.
Keywords: autotrophic respiration, carbon fluxes and pools, ecophysiology, leaf dry mass per area, photosynthesis, rainforest, vertical gradient
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Asao, Shinichi; Bedoya-Arrieta, Ricardo; Ryan, Michael G. 2014. Variation in foliar respiration and wood CO2 efflux rates among species and canopy layers in a wet tropical forest. Tree Physiology. 35: 148-159.
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