Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (324 KB)

Title: Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: Duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome

Author: Cane, James H.; Dunne, Rick.;

Date: 2014

Source: American Midland Naturalist. 171(2): 365-370.

Publication Series: Scientific Journal (JRNL)

Description: The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae) typify the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. Bees are thought to diminish its seed siring potential, but we found that foraging female generalist bees (Apis, Anthophora) deposited substantial amounts of conspecific pollen on P. eatonii stigmas. In the absence of hummingbirds, bee pollination of cultivated P. eatonii annually generated massive seed yields from a 1.5 ha field. Most penstemons with red tubular flowers like P. eatonii present a symmetrically flared floral opening that facilitates landing by foraging bees. Derived floral traits that attract and position nectar-foraging hummingbirds for efficient pollen export (red deeply tubular flowers secreting abundant dilute nectar) need not compromise pollination and seed production that result from visitation by generalist bees seeking pollen and/or nectar,

Keywords: Penstemon eatonii, Plantaginaceae, bees, Apis, Anthophora, pollination, hummingbirds

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Cane, James H.; Dunne, Rick. 2014. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: Duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome. American Midland Naturalist. 171(2): 365-370.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.