Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (203.0 KB bytes)

Title: Long-term performance of minimum-input oak restoration plantings

Author: Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Swiecki, Tedmund J.;

Date: 2015

Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-251. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 397-406

Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)

   Note: This article is part of a larger document. View the larger document

Description: Starting in 1989, we used minimum-input methods to restore native oaks to parts of their former ranges in Vacaville, California. Each restoration site was analyzed, and only those inputs deemed necessary to overcome expected limiting factors for oak establishment were used. We avoided unnecessary inputs that added to cost and could have unintended negative consequences. All projects were direct-seeded by volunteers using locally collected acorns of valley oak (Quercus lobata) and other native oaks. Other inputs included mulch and protection from herbivores (cattle, voles) or mowing crews. Plantings received sporadic maintenance after planting. None of the plantings were irrigated or fertilized. Growth rates and survival show spatial variation at all locations. Multiple project locations now have stands of oaks that have been established at very low cost, validating the minimum input approach. Some very low input plantings had high mortality due to unanticipated impacts from fire and vole outbreaks that greatly exceeded levels previously observed. Lessons learned from the long-term performance of these plantings can be applied in an adaptive management system to accomplish low cost, ecologically sound oak restoration projects in other locations.

Keywords: acorns, direct seeding, herbivore protection, interior live oak, Quercus lobata, Quercus wislizeni, valley oak

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Bernhardt, Elizabeth; Swiecki, Tedmund J. 2015. Long-term performance of minimum-input oak restoration plantings. In: Standiford, Richard B.; Purcell, Kathryn L., tech. cords. Proceedings of the seventh California oak symposium: managing oak woodlands in a dynamic world. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-251. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station: 397-406.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.