Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service
  
Treesearch

Research & Development Treesearch

 
Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Northern
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help
 

Science.gov - We Participate


USA.gov  Government Made Easy


Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.
20090-6090

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (141 KB bytes)

Title: Resorcinol-formaldehyde reactions in dilute solution observed by carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy

Author: Christiansen, Alfred W.;

Date: 2000

Source: Journal of applied polymer science. Vol. 75 (2000).:p. 1760-1768 : ill.

Publication Series: Miscellaneous Publication

Description: A recently discovered coupling agent, hydroxymethylated resorcinol (HMR), based on resorcinol-formaldehyde, can greatly enhance wood-to-epoxy resin bond durability in exterior applications. However, for HMR to be most effective, it needs to be prepared a few hours before it is applied to the wood surface. In this study, carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to monitor composition of HMR as a function of time to characterize which chemical groups are present in solution when HMR is applied. A quantitative assessment of formaldehyde-derived groups required the use of 99% 13C-enriched formaldehyde. Hydroxymethyl groups, primarily attached to the 4-position of resorcinol, and hemiformal groups formed very quickly. Signals from methylene linkages between resorcinol rings began to appear 20 min into the reaction. Formaldehyde was consumed quickly; 95% was bound to resorcinol rings within 1.7 h. By 3 h, 16% had been converted to methylene linkages, and by 8.3 h, 40% was converted. Another set of NMR experiments was used to monitor the dependency of peak positions of resorcinol solution as a function of pH. These experiments showed significant effects, especially between pH 7.7 and 9.1, which explains chemical shift changes observed during the HMR reaction.

Keywords: Resins, Adhesives, Resorcinol, Formaldehyde, Chemical reactions, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Carbon, Solutions, Hydroxymethylated resorcinol, Coupling agents

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

XML: View XML

Citation:


Christiansen, Alfred W. 2000. Resorcinol-formaldehyde reactions in dilute solution observed by carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy. Journal of applied polymer science. Vol. 75 (2000).:p. 1760-1768 : ill.

 


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.