Skip to page content
USDA Forest Service

Research & Development Treesearch

Treesearch Home
About Treesearch
Contact Us
Research & Development
Forest Products Lab
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
Pacific Northwest
Pacific Southwest
Rocky Mountain
Southern Research Station
Help - We Participate  Government Made Easy

Global Forest Information Service

US Forest Service
P.O. Box 96090
Washington, D.C.

(202) 205-8333

You are here: Home / Search / Publication Information
Bookmark and Share

Publication Information

View PDF (7.0 MB bytes)

Title: Xylem monoterpenes of pines: distribution, variation, genetics, function

Author: Smith, Richard;

Date: 2000

Source: Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-177. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 454 p.

Publication Series: General Technical Report (GTR)

Description: The monoterpenes of about 16,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) speciesand hybrids—largely from the western United States—were analyzed in this long-term study of the resistance of pines to attack by bark beetles (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), with special emphasis on resistance to the western pine beetle(Dendroctonus brevicomis). The samples were analyzed by gas liquid chromatography, and the results reported are expressed as normalized monoterpene composition. Optical isomers were not separated. The studycovered (a) 19 pine species in California, (b) 86 pine hybrids and 26 parentspecies at the Pacific Southwest Research Station’s Insitute of Forest Genetics, (c)21 half sibling populations of Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., (d) 56 full siblingpopulations of P. ponderosa, (e) interspecific and intraspecific pine grafts, (f)effects of procedural parameters, and (g) bioassay of resistance to Dendroctonusbrevicomis. The results suggested that (a) these monoterpenes and associatedhydrocarbons were primarily controlled by genes in pine xylem—hepane,undecane, a-pinene, ß-pinene, 3-carene, sabinene, myrcene, limonene, ß-phellandrene—and evidence strongly suggested a pair of additive alleles foreach monoterpene that competes with each other for a fixed amount of a fivecarbonprecursor; (b) all of these might also be produced by isomerization andpossibly may be byproducts of biosynthesis of other monoterpenes; (c) thequantity of all these can be modified by several environmental factors oftenassociated with forms of stress, and possibly by other minor genetic factors; an(d) these monoterpenes were not controlled by genes in pines but are probablythe results of isomerization and byproducts of biosynthesis: a-thujene, nonane,camphene, ?-terpenene, ocimene, a-phellandrene, and terpinolene

Keywords: Pinus species, pine grafts, bark beetles, western pine beetles, gas liquid chromatography, California.

Publication Notes:

  • We recommend that you also print this page and attach it to the printout of the article, to retain the full citation information.
  • This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.



Smith, Richard 2000. Xylem monoterpenes of pines: distribution, variation, genetics, function. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-177. Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 454 p.


 [ Get Acrobat ]  Get the latest version of the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility

USDA logo which links to the department's national site. Forest Service logo which links to the agency's national site.